C++ Agent

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Reference MTConnect Agent

The MTConnect implementation that has been most closely tracking the MTConnect standard and is used in most production implementation is the C++ Agent that resides on the MTConnect project pages of github C++ Agent . As part of the effort, we also provide pre-built Windows x86 binaries that are statically linked and can be run on any Windows computer dating from around Windows XP SP2 and later. Earlier builds are possible, but these will be left up to the reader. The pre-built binaries can be found at: C++ Agent Releases.

The C++ Agent provides the fullest implementation of the standard available at the time of release. The version number (Major, Minor, Patch, Build) are tied to the MTConnect standard. The first three (Major, Minor, Build) are based directly on the MTConnect standard release nomenclature and the build number will increment as new versions of the C++ agent is released. When the agent is in pre-release for a upcoming version of the standard, it will be suffixed with a RCn where this stands for Release Candidate n as in RC1.

The agent has a rich level of configuration and is capable of serving up content from the local file system and allowing changes to be pushed. To get the full details on the configuration, again, visit the C++ Agent github page and scroll down to the readme.md. There are many features built in to the agent, some documented better than others. We will try to document some of the more interesting capabilities on these pages.


There are certain responsibilities the Agent has and certain responsibilities the Adapter has in this architecture. The adapter is responsible for the following functionality:

  1. Connect to the controller's proprietary interface.
  2. Make the requisite calls to the controllers interfaces to retrieve the necessary data.
  3. Convert the controller state to events in the proper vocabulary. For example convert from Register 0x32 bit 6-9 to READY, ACTIVE, STOPPED.
  4. Format the data in the pipe delimited formate described below.
  5. Respond to PING requests from the Agent in a timely manor to provide keep-alive heartbeats.
  6. Provide a complete snapshot of the data when an agent connects.

The agent is responsible for the following:

  1. Receive RESTful requests from application and respond with proper MTConnect XML.
  2. Provide push based streaming data when requested.
  3. Connect to the adapters and maintain the connections using heartbeats. Detect failures and cleanup connections.
  4. Receive the data from the adapter and parse the pipe delimited values.
  5. Minimally validate the data.
  6. Convert numeric values from the native units to the MTConnect units if required.
  7. Maintain the circular storage of events and assets.
  8. Handle many-to-many mappings from adapters to devices.
  9. Manage time series data in efficient manor.
  10. Handle near-real-time updates to applications that have requested interval=0 notifications.
  11. Efficiently format XML for applications.
  12. Serve static XSD and other static assets as configured.
  13. Handle timestamps from adapters or overwrite the timestamps using relative time adjustment or current clock time.

The agent is by far the more complex piece of software and takes a lot of work to get right. The adapters can be written in as little as 5 lines of Python or Ruby script and be perfectly adequate. The architecture was designed to operate in this way to make reduce the complexity of the adapter tools. Visit the C++ adapter SDK and the C# adapter SDK to get a feel for what it takes to write an adapter. There are also videos on how to develop adapters here Adapters

Adapter Connectivity

The adapters communicate with the MTConnect agent using a simple TCP sockets protocol. TCP is merely a convenient streaming character based protocol that has been around for over 30 years and is supported on every machine known to man (except for some manufacturing equipment!) The semantics were chosen as the simplest possible format to get data from a device to another process with minimal overhead, but still easily verifiable. The format is a pipe delimited line of data terminated with a <LF> or a <CR><LF>, both work. The format is as follows:


The timestamp is in what is referred to as ISO 8601 format and it will always be given in UTC – MTConnect does no time zone conversions. The timestamp is optional and if it is not present the agent will supply its own time to the arriving data. A new feature has been added recently to handle clock skew and delta time, I'll cover that later. The format without a timestamp must begin with as | as follows:


To make data collection more efficient, all data that changes at the same time can be represented on a single line as follows:


Each pair will get a separate sequence number, but they will all have the same timestamp. This save bandwidth having to repeat the timestamp multiple times. There are some exceptions to this rule; some data items require more than a single value, they have multiple arguments. These are: Alarm (deprecated), Condition, TimeSeries, and Message. Each of these require a themselves to be on a separate line.


A condition represents the state of an alarm or warning on the machine. The standard specifies there can be a lot of additional information passed through to represent a condition. These are:

 time_stamp|name|level|native_code|native_severity|qualifier|error text

The level can be one of the following:


The native_code is whatever the controller call this alarm, usually a number or pneumonic representation. The native_severity is also controller defined and will be merely passed through. The qualifier can be currently HIGH or LOW and the error_text is just a pass through from the controller of the text from the controller.


The message is simply a |name|native_code|message where the native_code is similar to the condition and is just what the controller calls the alarm in a numeric or pneumonic form.

Time Series

When time series data items are passed through, they must have two additional arguments (the second is optional since it can be defaulted, but an empty cell must be present. The time series is represented as follows:


as in

 2013-09-01T21:00:23.0123|temp|10|10|18.2 18.4 18.3 18.9 19.0 19.2 19.1 19.3 19.4 19.7

Here we have ten samples at 10 hertz. If the 10 hertz was set as part of the data item, it can be omitted here:

 2013-09-01T21:00:23.0123|temp|10||18.2 18.4 18.3 18.9 19.0 19.2 19.1 19.3 19.4 19.7

Installing C++ Agent on Ubuntu

Installing C++ Agent on Ubuntu

Installing C++ Agent on Raspberry Pi

Installing C++ Agent on Raspberry Pi