Cutting Tools

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An Asset is something that is associated with the manufacturing process that is not a component of a device, can be removed without detriment to the function of the device, and can be associated with other devices during their lifecycle. An asset does not have computational capabilities, but may carry information in some media physically attached to the asset.

Figure 1: Assets Schema

Concrete examples of Assets are things like Cutting Tools, Workholding Systems, and Fixtures. This page will go over the modeling of Cutting Tools and the management and communication of asset data using MTConnect.

Contents

Cutting Tool

A Cutting Tool is an assembly of items for removing material from a work-piece through a shearing action at the defined cutting edge or edges of the Cutting Item. A Cutting Tool can be a single item or an assembly of one or more Adaptive Items, a Tool Item and several Cutting Items on a Tool Item.

MTConnect will adopt the ISO 13399 structure when formulating the vocabulary for cutting tool geometries and structure. MTConnect will focus on the application of the cutting tool and cutting items. At this time we are only concerned with two aspects of the cutting tool, the Cutting Tool and the Cutting Item. The Tool Item, Adaptive Item, and Assembly Item will be covered in the CuttingToolDefinition section of this page since this section contains the full ISO 13399 information about a Cutting Tool.

Figure 2: Cutting Tool Parts
Figure 3: Cutting Tool Composition


Figure 2 illustrates the parts of a cutting tool. The cutting tool is the aggregate of all the components and the cutting item is the part of the tool that removes the material from the workpiece. These are the primary focus of MTConnect.

Figure 3 provides another view of the cutting tool composition model. The adaptive items and tool items will be used for measurements, but will not be modeled as separate entities. When we are referencing the cutting tool we are referring to the entirety of the assembly and when we provide data regarding the cutting item we are referencing each individual item as illustrated on the left of the previous diagram.

Figure 4: Cutting Tool, Tool Item, and Cutting Item
Figure 5: Cutting Tool, Tool Item, and Cutting Item


Figures 4 and 5 further illustrate the components of the cutting tool. As we compose the Tool Item, Cutting Item, Adaptive Item, we get a Cutting Tool. The Tool Item, Adaptive Item, and Assembly Item will only be in the CuttingToolDefinition section that will contain the full ISO 13399 information.

The above diagrams use the ISO 13399 codes for each of the measurements. These codes will be translated into the MTConnect vocabulary as illustrated below. The measurements will have a maximum, minimum, and nominal value representing the tolerance of allowable values for this dimension.

Figure 6: Cutting Tool Measurements

The MTConnect standard will not define the entire geometry of the cutting tool, but will provide the information necessary to use the tool in the manufacturing process. Additional information can be added to the definition of the cutting tool by means of schema extensions.

Additional diagrams will reference these dimensions by their codes that will be defined in the measurement tables. The codes are consistent with the codes used in ISO 13399 and have been standardized. MTConnect will use the full text name for clarity in the XML document.

Figure 7: Cutting Tool Asset Structure
Figure 8: Cutting Tool Schema


Cutting Tool Attributes:

Attribute Description Occurrence
timestamp The time this asset was last modified. Always given in UTC. The timestamp MUST be provided in UTC (Universal Time Coordinate, also known as GMT). This is the time the asset data was last modified. 1
assetId The unique identifier of the instance of this tool. The unique identifier of the instance of this tool. This will be the same as the toolId and serialNumber in most cases. The assetId SHOULD be the combination of the toolId and serialNumber as in toolId.serialNumber or an equivalent implementation dependent identification scheme. 1
serialNumber The unique identifier for this assembly. The unique identifier for this assembly. This is defined as an XML string type and is implementation dependent. 1
toolId The identifier for the class of cutting tool. The identifier for a class of cutting tools. This is defined as an XML string type and is implementation dependent. 1
deviceUuid The device’s UUID that supplied this data. This optional element References to the UUID attribute given in the device element. This can be any series of numbers and letters as defined by the XML type NMTOKEN. 1
manufacturers The manufacturers of the cutting tool. An optional attribute referring to the manufacturers of this tool, for this element, this will reference the Tool Item and Adaptive Items specifically. The Cutting Items manufacturers’ will be an attribute of the CuttingItem elements. The representation will be a comma (,) delimited list of manufacturer names. This can be any series of numbers and letters as defined by the XML type string. 0..1

Cutting Tool Elements

The elements associated with this cutting tool are given below. Each element will be described in more detail below and any possible values will be presented with full definitions. The elements MUST be provided in the following order as prescribed by XML. At least one of CuttingToolDefinition or CuttingToolLifeCycle MUST be supplied.

Element Description Occurrence
Description An element that can contain any descriptive content. This can contain configuration information and manufacturer specific details. This element is defined to contain mixed content and XML elements can be added to extend the descriptive semantics of MTConnect. 0..1
CuttingToolDefinition Reference to a ISO 13399 0..1
CuttingToolLifeCycle MTConnect data regarding the use phase of this tool. 0..1

Description

The description MAY contain mixed content, meaning that an additional XML element or plain text may be provided as part of the content of the description tag. Currently the description contains no additional attributes.

CuttingToolDefinition

Figure 9: Cutting Tool Definition

The CuttingToolDefinition contains the detailed structure of the cutting tool. The information contained in this element will be static during its lifecycle. Currently we are referring to the external ISO 13399 standard to provide the complete definition and composition of the cutting tool.

CuttingToolDefinition Attributes:

Attribute Description Occurrence
format Format – EXPRESS, XML, TEXT, or UNDEFINED. Default: XML 0..1

format:

The format attribute describes the expected representation of the enclosed data. If no value is given, the assumed format will be XML.

Value Description
XML The default value for the definition. The content will be an XML document.
EXPRESS The document will confirm to the ISO 10303 standard. STEP-NC part 21 file formats.
TEXT The document will be a text representation of the tool data.
UNDEFINED The document will be provided in an undefined format.

CuttingToolDefinition Elements:

The only acceptable cutting tool definition at present is ISO 13399. Additional formats MAY be considered in the future.

ISO 13399

The ISO 13399 data MUST be presented in either XML (ISO 10303-28) or EXPRESS format (ISO 10303-21). An XML schema will be preferred as this will allow for easier integration with the MTConnect XML tools. EXPRESS will also be supported, but software tools will need to be provided or made available for handling this data representation.

There will be the root element of the ISO13399 document when XML is used. When EXPRESS is used the XML element will be replaced by the text representation.

CuttingToolLifeCycle

Figure 10: Cutting Tool Life Cycle

The life cycle refers to the data pertaining the the application or the use of the tool. This data is provided by various devices, machine tool, presetters, and statistical process control applications. Life cycle data will not remain static, but will change periodically when a tool is used or measured. The life cycle has three conceptual parts; tool and cutting item identity, properties, and measurements. A measurement is defined as a constrained value that is reported in defined units and as a W3C floating point format.

The CuttingToolLifeCycle contains data for the entire tool assembly. The specific cutting items that are part of the CuttingToolLifeCycle are contained in the CuttingItems element. Each cutting item has similar properties as the assembly; identity, properties, and measurements.

CuttingToolLifeCycle Elements:

The elements associated with this cutting tool are given below. Each element will be described in more detail below and any possible values will be presented with full definitions. The elements MUST be provided in the following order as prescribed by XML.

Element Description Occurrence
CutterStatus The status of the this assembly. Can be one more of the following values: NEW, AVAILABLE,UNAVAILABLE, ALLOCATED, UNALLOCATED, MEASURED, RECONDITIONED, NOT_REGISTERED, USED, EXPIRED, BROKEN, or UNKNOWN. 1
ReconditionCount The number of times this cutter has been reconditioned. 0..1
ToolLife The cutting tool life as related to this assembly 0..1
Location The location this tool now resides in. 0..1
ProgramToolGroup The tool group this tool is assigned in the part program. 0..1
ProgramToolNumber The number of the tool as referenced in the part program. 0..1
ProcessSpindleSpeed The constrained process spindle speed for this tool 0..1
ProcessFeedRate The constrained process feed rate for this tool in mm/s. 0..1
ConnectionCodeMachineSide Identifier for the capability to connect any component of the cutting tool together, except assembly items, on the machine side. Code: CCMS 0..1
Measurements A collection of measurements for the tool assembly. 0..1
CuttingItems An optional set of individual cutting items. 0..1

CutterStatus:

The elements of the CutterStatus element can be a combined set of Status elements. The standard allows any set of statuses to be combined, but only certain combinations make sense. A cutting tool SHOULD not be both NEW and USED at the same time. There are no rules in the schema to enforce this, but this is left to the implementer.

Figure 11: CutterStatus

The following combinations MUST NOT occur:

  • NEW MUST NOT be used with USED, RECONDITIONED, or EXPIRED.
  • UNKNOWN MUST NOT be used with any other status.
  • ALLOCATED and UNALLOCATED MUST NOT be used together.
  • AVAILABLE and UNAVAILABLE MUST NOT be used together.
  • If the tool is EXPIRED, BROKEN, or NOT_REGISTERED it MUST NOT be AVAILABLE.
  • All other combinations are allowed.
Element Description Occurrence
Status The status of the cutting tool. There can be multiple Status elements. 1...INF

Status:

These are the values for the status of the cutting tool:

Value Description
NEW A new tool that has not been used or first use. Marks the start of the tool history.
AVAILABLE Indicates the tool is available for use. If this is not present, the tool is currently not ready to be used
UNAVAILABLE Indicates the tool is unavailable for use in metal removal. If this is not present, the tool is currently not ready to be used
ALLOCATED Indicates if this tool is has been committed to a device for use and is not available for use in any other device. If this is not present, this tool has not been allocated for this device and can be used by another device
UNALLOCATED Indicates this Cutting Tool has not been committed to a process and can be allocated.
MEASURED The tool has been measured.
RECONDITIONED The cutting tool has been reconditioned. See ReconditionCount for the number of times this cutter has been reconditioned.
USED The tool is in process and has remaining tool life.
EXPIRED The cutting tool has reached the end of its useful life.
BROKEN Premature tool failure.
NOT_REGISTERED This cutting tool cannot be used until it is entered into the system.
UNKNOWN The cutting tool is an indeterminate state. This is the default value.

Location

Figure 12: Location

This is the optional device specific pocket id providing the current pocket number this tool resides in. This can be any series of numbers and letters as defined by the XML NMTOKEN. When a POT or STATION type is used, the value MUST be a numeric value. If a negativeOverlap or the positiveOverlap is provided, the tool reserves additional locations on either side, otherwise if they are not given, no additional locations are required for this tool. If the pot occupies the first or last location, a rollover to the beginning or the end of the index-able values may occur. For example, if there are 64 pots and the tool is in pot 64 with a positiveOverlap of 1, the first pot MAY be occupied as well.

Location attributes:

Attribute Description Occurrence
type The type of location being identified. Current MUST be one of POT, STATION, or CRIB. 1
positiveOverlap The number of locations at higher index value from this location. 0..1
negativeOverlap The number of location at lower index values from this location. 0..1

type:

Value Description
POT The number of the pot in the tool handling system.
STATION The tool location in a horizontal turning machine.
CRIB The location with regard to a tool crib.

positiveOverlap

The number of locations at higher index values that the cutting tool occupies due to interference. The value MUST be an integer. If not provided it is assumed to be 0.

negativeOverlap

The number of locations at lower index values that the cutting tool occupies due to interference. The value MUST be an integer. If not provided it is not assumed to be 0.

The tool number assigned in the part program and is used for cross referencing this tool information with the process parameters. The value MUST be an integer.

ProgramToolGroup

The optional identifier for the group of cutting tools when multiple tools can be used interchangeably. This is defined as an XML string type and is implementation dependent.

ProgramToolNumber

The tool number assigned in the part program and is used for cross referencing this tool information with the process parameters. The value MUST be an integer.

ReconditionCount

Figure 13: Cutting Tool Life Cycle

This element MUST contain an integer value as the CDATA that represents the number of times the cutter has been reconditioned.

ReconditionCount attributes:

Attribute Description Occurrence
maximumCount The maximum number of times this tool may be reconditioned 0..1

Tool Life

Figure 14: Tool Life

The value is the current value for the tool life. The value MUST be a number. Tool life is an option element which can have three types, either minutes for time based, part count for parts based, or wear based using a distance measure. One tool life element can appear for each type, but there cannot be two entries of the same type. Additional types can be added in the future.

ToolLife attributes:

Attribute Description Occurrence
type The type of tool life being accumulated. MINUTES, PART_COUNT, or WEAR 1
countDirection Indicates if the tool life counts from zero to maximum or maximum to zero, The values MUST be one of UP or DOWN. 1
warning The point at which a tool life warning will be raised. 0..1
limit The end of life limit for this tool. If the countDirection is DOWN, the point at which this tool should be expired, usually zero. If the countDirection is UP, this is the upper limit for which this tool should be expired. 0..1
initial The initial life of the tool when it is new. 0..1

ToolLife type attribute:

The value of type must be one of the following:

Value Description
MINUTES The tool life measured in minutes. All units for minimum, maximum, and warningLevel MUST be provided in minutes.
PART_COUNT The tool life measured in parts. All units for minimum, maximum, and warningLevel MUST be provided supplied as the number of parts.
WEAR The tool life measured in tool wear. Wear MUST be provided in millimeters as an offset to nominal. All units for minimum, maximum, and warningLevel MUST be given as millimeter offsets as well. The standard will only consider dimensional wear at this time.

ToolLife countDirection attributes:

The value of type must be one of the following:

Value Description
DOWN The tool life counts down from the maximum to zero.
UP The tool life counts up from zero to the maximum.

ProcessSpindleSpeed

Figure 15: Process Spindle Speed

The Process Spindle Speed MUST be specified in revolutions/minute (RPM). The CDATA MAY contain the process target spindle speed if available. The maximum and minimum speeds MAY be provided as attributes. At least one value MUST be provided.

ProcessSpindleSpeed attributes:

Attribute Description Occurrence
maximum The upper bound for the tool’s target spindle speed 0..1
minimum The lower bound for the tools spindle speed. 0..1
nominal The nominal speed the tool is designed to operate at. 0..1

ProcessFeedRate

Figure 16: Process Feed Rate

The Process Feed Rate MUST be specified in millimeters/second (mm/s). The CDATA MAY contain the process target feed rate if available. The maximum and minimum rates MAY be provided as attributes. At least one value MUST be provided.

ConnectionCodeMachineSide:

This is an optional identifier for implementation specific connection component of the cutting tool on the machine side. Code: CCMS. The CDATA MAY be any valid string according to the referenced connection code standards.

ProcessSpindleSpeed attributes:

Attribute Description Occurrence
maximum The upper bound for the tool’s process target feed rate 0..1
minimum The lower bound for the tools feed rate. 0..1
nominal The nominal feed rate the tool is designed to operate at. 0..1

Measurements

The Measurements element is a collection of one or more constrained scalar values associated with this cutting tool. The contents MUST be a subtype of CommonMeasurement or AssemblyMeasurement. The following section will define the abstract Measurement type used in both CuttingToolLifeCycle and CuttingItem. This section will then describe the AssemblyMeasurement types. The CuttingItemMeasurement types will be described at the end of the CuttingItem section.

A measurement is specific to a process and a machine tool at a particular shop. The tool zero reference point or gauge line will be different depending on the particular implementation and will be assumed to be consistent within the shop. MTConnect does not standardize the manufacturing process or the definition of the zero point.

Figure 17: Measurement

A measurement MUST be a scalar floating point value that MAY be constrained to a maximum and minimum value. Since the CuttingToolLifeCycle’s main responsibility is to track aspects of the tool that change over it’s use in the shop, MTConnect represents the current value of the measurement MUST be in the CDATA (text between the start and end element) as the most current valid value.

The minimum and maximum MAY be supplied if they are known or relevant to the measurement. A nominal value MAY be provided to show the reference value for this measurement.

There are three subtypes of Measurement: CommonMeasurement, AssemblyMeasurement, and CuttingItemMeasurement. These abstract types MUST NOT appear in an MTConnectAssets document, but are used in the schema as a way to separate which measurements MAY appear in the different sections of the document. Only subtypes that have extended these types MAY appear in the MTConnectAssets XML.

Measurements in the CuttingToolLifeCycle section MUST refer to the entire assembly and not to an individual cutting item. Cutting item measurements MUST be located in the measurements associated with the individual Cutting Item.

Measurements MAY provide an optional units attribute to reinforce the given units. The units MUST always be given in the predefined MTConnect units. If units are provided, they are only for documentation purposes. nativeUnits MAY optionally be provided to indicate the original units provided for the measurements.

Measurements attributes:

Attribute Description Occurrence
code A shop specific code for this measurement. ISO 13399 codes MAY be used to for these codes as well. 0..1
maximum The maximum value for this measurement. Exceeding this value would indicate the tool is not usable. 0..1
minimum The minimum value for this measurement. Exceeding this value would indicate the tool is not usable. 0..1
nominal The as advertised value for this measurement. 0..1
significantDigits The number of significant digits in the reported value. This is used by applications to determine accuracy of values. This MAY be specified for all numeric values. 0..1
units The units for the measurements. MTConnect defines all the units for each measurement, so this is mainly for documentation sake. 0..1
nativeUnits The units the measurement was originally recorded in. This is only necessary if they differ from units. 0..1

CuttingToolMeasurement subtypes

These measurements are specific to the entire assembly and MUST NOT be used for the measurement pertaining to a CuttingItem. The following diagram will be used to for reference for the assembly specific measurements.

The Code in the following table will refer to the acronyms in the diagrams. We will be referring to many diagrams to disambiguate all measurements of the CuttingTool and CuttingItem.

Figure 18: Cutting Tool Measurement Diagram 1
Figure 19: Cutting Tool Measurement Diagram 2


Measurement Code Description Units
BodyDiameterMax BDX The largest diameter of the body of a tool item. mm
BodyLengthMax LBX The distance measured along the X axis from that point of the item closest to the workpiece, including the cutting item for a tool item but excluding a protruding locking mechanism for an adaptive item, to either the front of the flange on a flanged body or the beginning of the connection interface feature on the machine side for cylindrical or prismatic shanks. mm
DepthOfCutMax APMX The maximum engagement of the cutting edge or edges with the workpiece measured perpendicular to the feed motion. mm
CuttingDiameterMax DC The maximum diameter of a circle on which the defined point Pk of each of the master inserts is located on a tool item. The normal of the machined peripheral surface points towards the axis of the cutting tool. mm
FlangeDiameterMax DF The dimension between two parallel tangents on the outside edge of a flange. mm
OverallToolLength OAL The largest length dimension of the cutting tool including the master insert where applicable. mm
ShankDiameter DMM The dimension of the diameter of a cylindrical portion of a tool item or an adaptive item that can participate in a connection. mm
ShankHeight H The dimension of the height of the shank. mm
ShankLength LS The dimension of the length of the shank. mm
UsableLengthMax LUX maximum length of a cutting tool that can be used in a particular cutting operation including the non-cutting portions of the tool. mm
ProtrudingLength LPR The dimension from the yz-plane to the furthest point of the tool item or adaptive item measured in the -X direction. mm
Weight WT The total weight of the cutting tool in grams. The force exerted by the mass of the cutting tool. grams
FunctionalLength LF The distance from the gauge plane or from the end of the shank to the furthest point on the tool, if a gauge plane does not exist, to the cutting reference point determined by the main function of the tool. The CuttingTool functional length will be the length of the entire tool, not a single cutting item. Each CuttingItem can have an independent FunctionalLength represented in its measurements. mm